General overview of the electroplating and anodising industry
Also known as electroplated coating and electrodeposition, electroplating uses an electric current to decrease dissolved metal cations (positively charged ions). This is doneto form a thin coherent coating on an electrode. On the other hand, anodising is an electrolytic passivation process. It is utilised to boost the thickness of the natural oxide layer over the surface of metal parts. However, the main characteristic ofthe electroplating and anodising industry is to offer a protective layer for metal products. This is doneto prevent from metal rust, corrosion etc. and boost its good characteristics.
Significant challenges faced by the electroplating and anodising industry
Though beneficial in a certain way, the electroplating operations produce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These pollutants includecyanide, heavy metalsand volatile organic compounds (VOCs).Also, electroplating with aluminiuminvolvesusingspecialised equipment and toxic solvents.Furthermore, it has been noted that out of the total amount of metals used in electroplating, 4% goes as waste in electroplating solutions, sludge spent wash and so on. Undoubtedly, the pollutants released through the electroplating industry are hazardous and contaminate the environment.
While on the other hand, the anodising process with a sulfuric acid bath releases two by-products: aluminium hydroxide and degraded sulfuric acid. The former is a compound of aluminium from the anodised part, oxygen and hydrogen from the acid. Categorised by the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) as hazardous, aluminium hydroxide wastewater can’t be discharged into a municipal wastewater system. The EPA has setrigorous standards for the highest allowable aluminium concentration level upon disposal. Besides, the anodising industry must also remember that degraded sulfuric acid must be neutralised to a pH level between six and eight before discharging.
Roles and responsibilities of individuals involved in the electroplating and anodising industry
- No person involved in the electroplating and anodising industry must handle any hazardous substance except as per such process and after complying with certain safeguards as stipulated.
- A person running any operation, industry or process or handling any hazardous substance is bound to help the other person assigned by the Central Government to perform functions. However, if the former fails to do so without any reasonable excuse or reason, he must be guilty of an offence as per The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
- Subject to the norms of the EPAct, the Central Government holds the power toimplement all such measures as it deems beneficial or necessary for enhancing the quality of and protecting the environment. The main goal of such activities iscontrolling, preventing and abating environmental pollution. Additionally,setting standards for the discharge or emission of environmental pollutants from varioussources are included.
- No person involved in the electroplating and anodising industrycan emit/discharge any environmental pollutant inexcess.
- In case the discharge of excess environmental pollutants is expected or happensbecause of any accident or other unforeseen reasons, the person in charge of the area where the incident happened or is expected or the person responsible for such discharge is bound to mitigate or prevent the environmental pollution caused.
- Furthermore, the person must provide the apprehension or fact of such incidenceand if called upon, s/he is boundto render all aid.
- A State Board can instruct any person who, in its opinion, is discharging trade effluent or sewage into any well or stream or is abstracting water from any stream or well in the region in quantities more than the volume or flow of that stream to provide information regarding the discharge or abstraction.
- To prevent water pollution, a State Board may instruct any person in charge of any establishment or electroplating and anodising industry to provide information related to the installation, construction or operation of such unitor any addition or extension thereto in the such establishment or of any disposal system.
- No person must intentionallyallow or cause any harmful, poisonous orpolluting matter determined according to the standards set by the State Board to enter into stream/well/land.
- Subject to the provisions, no person must, without theprevious approval of the State Board, -
- bring into use any modified or new outletsfor sewage discharge; or
- establish any operation/process/treatment and disposal system or industry, including electroplating and anodising industry,which is expected to discharge trade effluent or sewage into a water body or on land; or
- start to make any new discharge of sewage.
- Provided that the person in the process of starting anyprocess or industryjust before the implementation of theWater (Control and Prevention of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1988, for which noconsent was requiredbefore such commencement, may resume to do so for three months from such initiation or, if he has applied for such consent, within three months, till thedisposal of such application.
- The occupier is responsible for the secure and environmental freindly management ofhazardous and other wastes.
- An occupier mustpracticeminimisation, prevention, recovery, and utilisation, including co-processing, reuse, recycling and safe disposal.
- The hazardous and other wastes must be transported from an occupier's establishment, including the electroplating and anodising industry, to an authorised disposal facility or an actual authorised user according to the provisions of the rules.
- The hazardous wastes generated in the occupier’s unitmust be sent or sold to an actual authorised user.Or else it must be disposed of in an authorised disposal unit.
Why electroplating and anodising industry is essential?
Increasing growth in industrial and construction industries, surging demand for related metal products, emerging economic conditions in developing nations, urbanisation development and technological advancements are the major factors affecting the global electroplating and anodising industry market growth.
Benefits of Electroplating
Electroplating is done for various reasons like
- Corrosion resistance
- Heat resistance
- Mechanical durability
- Ornamental or decorative purposes
Besides, automobile, aviation, healthcare and even communication industries benefit from this process.
Benefits of Anodizing
- Anodizing is a safe process.
- It is not harmful to human health.
- It is non-toxic.
- An anodised finish is chemically stable.
- Anodizing finish is heat-resistant to the melting point of aluminium (1,221 degrees F).
The following list mentions the documents required -
- Fees as per the fee structure provided
- Form No. 2
- Director or partner resolution nominating one of them to act as the occupier
- Attested copy of the stability certificate issued by a recognised authority
- Health and safety policy for all factories which employ a minimum of 50 workers
The following documents are required to obtain the licence for an electroplating and anodising industry -
- Certification of incorporating
- Memorandum of Association (MOA)
- A latest municipal property tax receipt if the premises are owned, else lease document.
- Certified layout plan of the office
- NOC of the neighbours (nearby property owners)
Most electroplating processes leads to the creation of hazardous heavy metals. Due to this reason, these hazardous metals must be properly disposed of. To do this effectively and legally, you should treat wastewater before its disposal. For this reason and also for extracting groundwater, obtaining CGWA NOC is mandated.
The following documents are compulsory –
- Consent to Operate
- Consent to Establish
- Flow chart of water
- Authorisation letter
The following documents are mandated to obtain CTO for Electroplating and Anodizing industry –
- Copy of balance sheet
- Proof of submission of safety audit report
- Details of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)/Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
The list of documents includes the following -
- Geographical Map
- Details of Water Pollution Control/Air Pollution Control instruments
- Ambient Air Quality Report
- Detailed layout plant of different processes
- DGTD Registration (if applicable)
- Consent fees
- Details of chemical reactions with mass equilibrium
- NOC from local body
The following documents are required for trademark registration of an electroplating anodising industry –
- A copy of the Aadhar card
- Udyam Aadhar Registration Certificate
- Certificate of recognition issued by DPIIT (the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade)
- Goods and Service Tax (GST) Certificate
Hazardous Waste Management Authorisation
The following is the list of documents required for the same –
- Certificate of registration
- Telephone Bill or Electricity Bill or Water Bill
- NOC (No Objection Certificate) from the site owner
- MCD License
- Memorandum of Association of the company
- Waste Collection Agreement
- Certificate of Incorporation (CIN)
- PAN card of the company
Stages in HWM Authorisation Process
The following table explains the complete process for obtaining the HWM authorisation -
Every occupier of the electroplating and anodising industry involved in hazardous waste management must apply Form 1 to SPCB within sixty days. However, the renewal application must be submitted three months ago before the expiry of authorisation.
Upon receiving the complete application with all mandated documents, the SPCB may conduct an inspection.
Grant of authorisation
Upon being satisfied and post ensuring technical capabilities and equipment comply with the SOPs or other normsmentioned by the CPCB over time, grants the authorisation within one hundred and twenty days. This remains valid for five years.
Note -Industries involved in manufacturing using anodising, forging and casting, dyeing, coal-fired boilers, pickling, and electroplating will confront closure action in case found operating in non-conforming areas.
The process involved in electroplating
Before starting the electroplating and anodising industry, it is important to know the process in detail. Both the cathode (the metal part to be coated) and the anode are dipped in an electrolytic bath. This bath comprises a solution of salts, including the metal to be plated. A direct current (DC) is passed through the solution. This affects the transfer of metal ions onto the cathodic surface, thereby plating the metal onto the metal.
The process involved inAnodizing
Anodizing works by dipping the part of the metal into an acid electrolyte bath. It is then followed by electrifying them. An electrochemical process converts the metal surface into an attractive and durable anodic oxide finish.
Market analysis of the electroplating and anodising industry
According to the reports, the global electroplating market was valued above US$14,540.5 million in 2016. Also, it is expected to grow at a CAGR of3.7% to overcome the US$ 21,160.0 million target by the end of 2026.
However, the global metal anodising market is expected to surpass US$ 1,094.6 million (in revenue) by the end of the year 2027. The industry is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 5.2% during the forecast period 2021 - 2027.
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