Overview of the Pulse Milling Industry
India is reckoned as the largest producer of pulses in the world. Major pulses grown are chickpeas (gram), Masur (lentil), pigeon peas (tur or arhar), moong beans, urad (black matpe), peas and various kinds of beans. Pulses are 20 to 25 per cent protein by weight, double the protein concentration in wheat and triple that of rice. Pulses are consumed in their de-husked and split form, commonly termeddal. Pulse milling (aka dal milling) is accomplished in three major stages: loosening husk, de-husking and splitting pulses. Moreover, the process is carried out in the pulse milling industry, India's third largest food processing business after rice and wheat.
Traditional methods for processing pulses were labour-intensive, time-consuming and incurred losses. Modern technologies being employed in the pulse milling industry have replaced old-age methods. Thus, this has helped in avoiding losses and saving time. Industriescarry out pulse milling by performing basic unit operations such as cleaning, grading, drying, loosening husk, de-husking, splitting and polishing. Even though the basic milling procedure is similar to mechanised milling, the specifics of de-husking methods vary widely from one dal mill to another and from region to region.
This business is being set up in the small-scale industry in many pulse-producing areas of the country. Setting up a pulse milling industry is relatively easy and doesn't need high capital investments. These advantages associated with the business allow farmers to engage in value addition and provide them with more profits.
Processing stages carried out in Pulse Milling Industry
To set up a pulse milling industry, an entrepreneur must be familiar with the prevalent practices. S/he should also have a strong knowledge of machinery used in milling various dal/pulses. The processing stages in pulse milling are -
Cleaning and Grading: Pulses received at the mill need to be cleaned and size graded for yielding good quality dal with higher recovery. Even during the de-husking operation, pulses are subjected to sieving to separate husk, broken, splits, gota (de-husked pulse) and whole (unhusked) pulses.
Drying: This stage is necessary to ensure the safe storage of pulses before carrying out the operation. This is necessary as pulses received in the pulse milling industry generally have higher moisture content. After the steeping of pulses to loosen the husk, it is also necessary to dry them.
Loosening of Husk: This is a crucial step in pulse milling as it decides the total recovery and quality of the milled pulses.
Dehusking: Roller de-huskers coated with carborundum are used to de-husk the pulses.
Splitting: Splitting operation involves loosening the bond between the cotyledons and splitting it.
Machinery Required in Pulse Milling Industry
The following machines are required in the Pulse Milling Industry -
Destoner cum Grader cum Aspirator – It removes stones, sticks, dust particles and other unwanted impurities from the threshed produce.
Dal Oil Mixer – Before de-husking, an appropriate quantity of oil blending with the cleaned pulses is required to soften the hard coat.
Pulse/Dal Dehusker – An indispensable part of the pulse milling industry, it removes the hard coat of black gram, green gram and red gram.
Grader cum Aspirator – It removes the lightly attached skin and is left after de-husking.
Dal Splitter cum Grader – It is used for splitting the dal into two halves and then subsequent grading.
Licences and authorisation needed for Pulse Milling Industry
FSSAI Registration offers a 14-digit license number printed on all food items. Obtaining this license provides the pulse milling industry legal benefits and builds goodwill. The registration also ensures food safety, creates consumer awareness, and assists the entrepreneur in business expansion.FSSAI license number details the assembling state, producer’s permit etc.
A Central FSSAI License is required for the pulse milling industry, where the turnover is more than 20 crores. A State FSSAI License is needed in the case of medium food businesses where the turnover is between 12 lakh to 20 crore. An essential FSSAI Registration is required in the case of a petty food business where the turnover is less than 12 lakh.
If we consider the case of state FSSAI licence, the documents required by a pulse milling industry in this regard are -
- Duly filled out Form B
- Layout plan of the unit with dimensions in metres/square metres and operation-wise area allocation
- List of directors
- Name and list of equipment
- Photo ID
- List of food categories desired to be manufactured
- Test analysis report
- Land ownership documents
- Copy of certificate obtained under Coop Act
- NOC and copy of the licence from the manufacturer
Consent No Objection Certificate (NOC)
A consent certificate is provided by the concerned State Pollution Control Board (SPCB)/ Pollution Control Committee(PCC) to industrial establishments like the pulse milling industry. This certificate is provided before the units start their operation. The consent NOC is provided in two stages: Consent to Establish (CTE) and Consent to Operate (CTO).
Documents required for Consent Certificates
- Duly filled application form
- Signed undertaking in the prescribed format
- Site or layout plan, along with a roadmap
- Detailed project report and total project investment
- Details of products, manufacturing process, list of machinery, capital, water balance and source and required quantity
- Land ownership proof, like lease/rent agreement
- Industry Registration Certificate
- Duly filled application form of the concerned SPCB
- Balanced sheet by CA
- Copy of CTE
- Proof of pollution control devices with their location, capacity and exit points of the discharge etc.)
- Copy of land-related documents
- Consent fee (as applicable)
- Laboratory analysis report of the trade effluent and emissions
- Any other document specified in the form
Additional Licences required by a Pulse Milling Industry
Apart from the one mentioned above, the following licenses are also required by the pulse milling industry -
- Company Registration or Registration of Proprietorship or Partnership Firm
- IEC Code, in case of export of pulses
Market Overview of the Pulse Milling Industry
In India, more than 75% of the pulses are marketed and consumed as dehulled splits. There are about 7,000 dal processing mills across the country. The average capacity of each pulse milling industry is about 10 tonnes per day. The market for milled pulses/dal is mainly domestic, where ninety per cent of the produce is consumed in the country. The rest is being exported. India exported 410,375.89 MT of pulses worth Rs. 2,834.23 crores during 2021-22. All this data indicates a more significant demand for milled pulses in the country and, in turn, a business opportunity for the new pulse milling industry.
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