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  • Assistance in CPCB Authorisation and Pollution NOC from SPCBs/PCCs
  • Documentation for all procedural formalities of Industrial Waste Management
  • Liaising with all concerned authorities throughout the process
  • Legal assistance for any issues raised by environmental agencies.

Overview of Industrial Waste Management

Industrial waste also referred to as manufacturing waste, is the unwanted waste generated due to by-products of industrial processes. Industrial activities involve discarding hazardous solid, liquid or gaseous discharges in varying amounts. Industrial waste management, therefore, includes the safe removal, recycling and disposal of such waste. The industrial waste can be generated by a range of different processes, such as wastewater, sludge, rejected products and product residues, kiln dust, slags, ashes, vapours etc. This waste may differ from industry to industry according to the raw materials used, the manufacturing processes, and the product outlets, but these kinds of wastes can be categorised into three forms: solids, liquids, and gases. Almost all industries generate some form of waste through their air emissions, wastewater discharges, and by-products. Discarding this waste directly into the environment is prohibited under The Air Act and The Water Act. While many activities require prior authorisation from CPCB, industries also need NOC for their water and air discharges in the form of Consent to Establish (CTE) and consent to Operate CTO certificates. Industrial Waste Management, therefore, becomes an integrated part of the functioning of these industries.

Strategies for Industrial Waste Management

Segregation: This strategy involves segregating recyclable waste from bio-degradable, solid, hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Industrial wastes sometimes include recyclable waste like glass, plastic, and paper which can be segregated at the source and absorbed in the production or sold to authorised recyclers. A company or manufacturer can enlist the help of industrial waste management firms in this regard. These firms are specially created to manage industrial waste, and the industry can save itself the stress of monitoring and managing waste.

Source Reduction: This involves innovative practices that reduce the amount of any consumables, pollutants, and contaminants and the volume of the waste. Such practices reduce the risks to public health and the environment and make managing industrial waste easy.

Treatment: Stabilising the waste by reducing waste toxicity before final disposal can reduce the hazardous characteristics of industrial waste. Treatment involves changing a waste's physical, chemical, or biological character or composition through designed processes.

Recycling: Recycling involves collecting, processing, and reusing materials that would otherwise be handled as waste. This requires an examination of waste streams and production processes to identify opportunities. Recycling and beneficially reusing wastes can help reduce disposal costs, while using or reusing recycled materials as substitutes can reduce the raw materials costs.

Methods of Industrial Waste Management

A wide variety of waste streams emitted from industrial plants can be addressed with the units engaged in Industrial Waste Management and guarantee the safe disposal of all waste, their maximum recovery reducing costs and environmental footprints. Techniques used by such units include physical, chemical and biological approaches like

Physical Methods

Chemical Methods

Biological Methods

Immobilisation (Encapsulation Thermoplastic binding)

Neutralization / stabilisation

Aerobic treatment by Activated sludge

Carbon absorption

Oxidation  or  Reduction

Wastewater  treatment in Aerated lagoon



Decomposition (Trickling filter)

Grinding, Shredding, Compacting

Thermal desorption / HTMR

Rotating biological contactor (RBC)


Precipitation / Extraction

Anaerobic digestion

Why do Industries Need Industrial Waste Management

Environmental Agencies regularly check on industries to ensure that they manage their industrial waste and adhere to the post compliances. The regulations are becoming increasingly stringent too, day by day. While this factor may be common knowledge, some additional factors mentioned below make industrial waste management necessary.

Multifarious nature of Waste: Not all industrial wastes are similar. They may have inorganic fractions, organic fractions, biodegradable fractions, non-biodegradable substances, recyclable waste, etc, depending on the nature of the industry. This waste may have hazardous and environmentally-harmful properties also, that require rigorous attention to safety, compliance and environmental protection.

Hazardous nature of waste: hazardous waste is a residue from industrial activity that can harm public health and the environment. Flammable, corrosive, active, toxic, non-hazardous and hazardous waste- waste's components can be many and so the list of applicable laws is also diverse. In India, the industries are categorised based on the Pollution Index (PI) into four categories (i.e. Red, Orange, Green and, in some cases, white category). CPCB has developed the PI and the list of industries and regularly comes up with guidelines on Industrial Waste Management from time to time.

Inspection by Authorities: To curb nefarious and polluting practices by some industrial units, every Pollution Control Board have mandated the installation of pollution control equipment and monitoring devices (in some states). These checks ensure that industries run in an environment-friendly manner and abide by the numerous pollution-related laws of the state.

Cost savings: Many pollution prevention activities make industrial processes and equipment resource-efficient. This increased production efficiency saves raw material and labour costs, lowers maintenance costs due to newer equipment, and potentially lowers oversight costs due to process simplification. Waste Management helps the facility owners avoid incurring additional costs in the long run as well as penalties. In fact, manufacturing units sometimes don’t realise that some waste can be valuable to other industries. 

Improved worker safety. Industry waste Management leads to less toxic and less physically dangerous materials that can improve worker safety by reducing work-related injuries and illnesses and strengthening the workforce's morale. Reducing the risks associated with waste allows it to be managed under less stringent design and operating conditions.

Documents Required for Consent to Establish

  • Application to the concerned Pollution Control Board
  • Signed Undertaking
  • Site Plan of the unit 
  • Project Report
  • Layout plan with details of different point sources of effluent discharge /air emission/solid waste/hazardous waste that may be generated.
  • Details of the manufacturing process,
  • list of machinery
  • Details of water balance, source of water, and its required quantity 
  • Land documents such as rent /lease agreement
  • Industry Registration Documents.
  • Consent fee (as applicable)
  • Any other Document specified in the Application Form

Documents required for Consent to Operate (CTO)

  • Application form of the concerned SPCB
  • Balanced Sheet Certified by a CA
  • Copy of CTE issued
  • Details of water pollution control/air pollution control devices and solid waste / hazardous waste management facilities provided
  • Lab analysis report in case of trade effluent and emissions.
  • Copy of environmental clearance (if applicable) or other permission required from the State Government.
  • Any other Document specified in the CTO application form

Stages in State Pollution Control Board’s Consent NOC Process

Document and Fee submission for Consent NOC

A complete application has to be made with the abovementioned documents and attached to the online or offline application. The prescribed fee must be paid during the application stage. The application is forwarded to the approving authority.

Document Scrutiny and inspection by the Authorities

A site inspection of the unit is carried out, and the inspecting authority makes recommendations. This will be done after the supervising officer in the concerned SPCB scrutinise the application and deems the application fit for further stages of scrutiny.  

Issuance of CTE NOC


A final decision is taken based on the inspection report and resolution of any queries raised by the State Pollution Control Board. The Chairman / Member Secretary will grant the NOCs (CTE and CTO) as per the delegation of powers within the Board.

How can Enterclimate assist you?

Cost Effective Solution

With the help of guidance by experts at Enterclimate, not only authorisation and NOC requirements are met, but the assistance will help you benefit financially too.

End-to-End Assistance

Our team comprises domain experts from diverse fields like law, environment and licencing who can plan, manage and assist you with your Industrial Waste Management Authorisation and Pollution NOCs application process.

Legal assistance throughout the process

The client relations team at Enterclimate ensure that our clients are made aware of changes that may concern them by keeping track of updates and changes in regulations and laws in the industry.


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