Overview of the Ceramic Industry
Ceramics are classified as inorganic and non-metallic materials that are essential for us. Ceramic industry designs and manufactures products that have unique properties not shown by other materials like metals or wood. Apart from being aesthetically appealing, ceramic products are cheaper, provide a better finish, are durable, and are resistant to extreme environmental conditions. The uses for ceramic products are immense in everyday life.
Besides products like tile, bricks, plates, glass, and toilet utilities, the ceramic industry manufactures high-end scientific and medical equipment. The manufacturing units in the industry can make simple items like small-scale earthen products, tables and ornamental ware (household ceramics) to high-end products like technical ceramics etc. The ceramic manufacturing unit is comparatively easy to set up and does not demand high investment or technical expertise.
Read on to explore the opportunities in the ceramic industry and the legalities involved with the same.
Functioning of the Ceramic Industry
Water is regularly used in the ceramic industry for careful shaping and mixing. This water is evaporated in dryers. The products are placed by hand in the kiln or placed onto carriages and are transferred through continuously operated tunnels or roller kilns. For the manufacture of clay aggregates, rotary kilns are used. The stages of ceramic processing include -
- Raw material characterisation
- Body preparation and evaluation
- Dry farming
- Wet forming
- Product evaluation and testing
Industrial waste generated from the Ceramic Industry
The pollutants from the manufacturing facility are primarily associated with raw materials used in the ceramic industry. Air emissions contain sulfur compounds from the fuel used in the calciners and the sulfur content used to manufacture ceramics. The waste produced by the ceramic industry is as follows -
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM): This is the suspended matter in the air that does not settle down as dust. The SPM released are less than 10µm in diameter, also known as SPM-10. These suspended particulate matters are emitted from the comminution, sizing, classifying, handling, transfer, and storage of ceramic products.
Emissions from Calciners: Emit filterable and condensible SPM, which may include inorganic pollutants. Calciners also emit end-products of combustion, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO).
VOC Emissions: This result from incomplete volatilisation and combustion of the organic material present with the raw material. Other processes associated with industrial waste emissions include acid leaching and granulation. Emissions of acids through the leaching process, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) or other acids, are also a concern. Spray dryers used for granulation also release SPM and some polluting emissions from combustion.
Licences and Documents needed by Ceramic Manufacturing Industry
Registration of the business
Registering any business, including the ceramic industry, with concerned authorities provides many benefits to the entrepreneur. It gives the business a separate identity and acts as an enabling criterion for various schemes and incentives meant to promote such businesses.
The manufacturer of ceramic products must register with their concerned State Pollution Control Board and Pollution Control Committee (SPCB/PCC). As the ceramic item's production falls under the orange category of industries under the CPCB list of Industries, the unit must obtain Consent from SPCB/PCC. This NOC is in the form of Consent to Establish or CTE and Consent to Operate or CTO. Furthermore, the owner of the ceramic industry must comply with the post-compliances mentioned in the certificate. Documents required at this stage include -
- Business Registration Certificate
- PAN card of the authorised signatory
- GST certificate
- Process flow chart
- Layout/ site plan
- Proof of ownership of site or rent/lease agreement
- Balanced sheet certified by a CA
- Proof and details of pollution control devices (air and water pollution) along with waste management authorisation (solid waste/hazardous waste management and location, capacity and exit points of the discharge from the premises)
- Lab report of the trade emissions and effluents
- Copy of any permission required from the state government, such as environmental clearance
- Any specific document specified by the concerned Board
Business plans of any class or description of factories has to be submitted to the the state government or the Chief Inspector. Replacement or expansion of any machinery or plant in mentioned limits will not be charged additionally for factory extension if involved with safe environmental conditions and working space. Documents required for registration of the ceramic industry under the Factories Act are -
- Form No-2 or Combined application form for establishment of industries in form 1AA
- Existing building plan in duplicate of any existing premises
- Construction completion report from management as per approved plan
- NOC from other partners or Board Resolution by Directors for the nomination of the occupier as per sections 2(n) and 7 of the Factories Act, 1948
- Proof/Supporting documents of Occupier as Director/ Partner/ Proprietor of the factory
- Proof of sanctioned load of electricity (copy of electricity bill)
- Proof of occupancy (copy of rent agreement/ownership proof)
- Flow chart of the manufacturing process
- Requisite Fee as per fee structure notified by the respective state
- Resolution of Director/partners nominating one to act as an occupier under section 2(n) of the Factories Act
- Original copy of Stability Certificate issued by a recognised competent person.
- Safety &health policy (if applicable)
- List of raw materials used in the manufacturing process
- List of machinery installed on the premises
BIS gives registration for ceramic tiles to ensure coherence of practice and transparency in the operation of certification under Scheme-I of the Bureau of Indian Standards Regulations, 2018. BIS certificate is mandatory for various products, including those manufactured in the ceramic industry, as per the IS 1352 (Part 1):2010 under the Compulsory Registration Scheme. The documents required for BIS registration are -
- Duly filled BIS application form.
- Duly filled CDF/CCL form
- Business license of manufacturing unit
- ISO certificate of the manufacturer
- Details of marking on the product
- Authorisation letter
- Trademark certificate
- Trademark Authorisation (If TM is owned by other than the manufacturer)
- Authorised representative company registration proof in India
- Photo ID of authorised representative/authorised signatory
- Technical specification sheet of product/user manual
Additional licences are required for establishing the ceramic industry
- GST registration
- Fire NOC
- MSME registration
Examples of businesses activities in the Ceramic Industries
Pottery Manufacturing: Pottery is clay that is moulded, dried, fired, glazed and turned into any vessel or decorative object.
Earthenware manufacturing: These are glazed or unglazed nonvitreous clay-based ceramic ware.
Stoneware Manufacturing: This is vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic ware of fine texture, made primarily from non-refractory fire clay or some combination of clays, silica and fluxes that, when fired, show properties similar to stoneware made from fire clay.
Whiteware manufacturing: It is a type of stoneware that fires white like porcelains but is not zero-porosity (thus not highly vitreous).
Chinaware manufacturing: This is vitreous ceramic ware of low absorption after firing that is used for non-technical applications. Applications for chinaware include art ware, ovenware, sanitary ware, and tableware.
Porcelain manufacturing: This is defined as glazed or unglazed ceramic ware and is used primarily for technical purposes. Applications for porcelain include art ware, ball mill balls, ball mill liners, chemical ware, insulators and tableware.
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