Since the beginning of agriculture, raising domesticated birds (poultry) for their meat, eggs, and feathers has been a key component of supplementing farmers’ income. Today, poultry farming has developed into a highly profitable business that does not require significant investment. Poultry farming is the most rewarding animal husbandry business since it allows for the use of a wide range of feedstock, has demand from both rural and urban markets, does not create significant pollution, and can be done even with limited expertise in the field. Moreover, the feedstock is available as inexpensive grains and by-products from the food processing industry. Eggs and poultry meat are major sources of cheap and quality protein for many. Due to rising demand for affordable meat and egg supplies free from contaminants, poultry farms today have made significant adjustments under the guidelines issued by governmental agencies from time to time. The CPCB Guidelines for Poultry Farms Management, released in 2020, calls for structural changes.
As per the National Green Tribunal’s judgement on September 16, 2020, the ” CPCB Guidelines for Poultry Farms Management” were published. By providing certificates of consent to establish (CTE) and consent to operate (CTO), all State Pollution Control Boards were required to put these regulations into effect in their respective states. As per the guidelines, small and medium size poultry farms are categorised under the ‘green’ category, and large size farms are grouped under the ‘orange’ category of industries.
Solid wastes: consist of poultry droppings, manure and litter, dead birds, and hatchery waste like spoilt or unhatched eggs and feathers. Deposited wastes become the sources of harmful gases and pathogenic germs and parasites. Several flies and rodents also breed and create hygiene issues.
Air Emission: The emission of obnoxious gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide occurs from the excreta generated by the birds. The odour is produced due to anaerobic conditions in the litter due to its storage in one place for a longer period. If accumulated wastes are not cleaned regularly, then these decompose by bacteria and produce toxins and foul smell gases.
Wastewater and Effluent: Wastewater can accumulate from the overflow of water used for cleaning and leftover water used for drinking by birds. It can be a source of breeding of flies like mosquitoes, houseflies, and other insects.
In 2015, CPCB developed the Guidelines for Poultry Farms Management for poultry farms handling 1 lac or more birds. But in 2020, the National Green Tribunal ordered CPCB to review the rules for the enforcement of a proper mechanism for all poultry farms handling more than 5000 birds and ordered that the farms must be subject to the same environmental regulations from January 1, 2023, onwards.
Poultry farms are now categorised based on the number of birds is handles as per CPCB Guidelines for Poultry Farms Management –
CPCB Guidelines for Poultry Farm: Minimising Odour or Gaseous Pollution
CPCB Guidelines for Poultry Farm: Dust Generated from Feed Mills
Manure Handling and Disposal
Assistance for Poultry farm setup that is being given by the government includes the following.
Poultry Venture Capital Fund (PVCF): It is being carried out by the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy under the National Livestock Mission’s “Entrepreneurship Development and Employment Generation” (EDEG) programme. It is a bankable initiative, and the Central Government offers subsidies to recipients who take out loans for PVCF through the National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD).
National Livestock Mission: Various initiatives under the National Livestock Mission offer financial support to States and UTs for the implementation of the Innovative Poultry Productivity Project (IPPP) and the Rural Backyard Poultry Development (RBPD).
Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD) Scheme: ASCAD’s “Livestock Health and Disease Control” (LH&DC) programme, which includes the management and containment of emerging and exotic diseases like Avian Influenza and the immunisation against economically significant poultry diseases including Ranikhet Disease, Infectious Bursal Disease, and Fowl Pox.
The poultry industry in India is huge, and Poultry farming has developed into a thriving agribusiness. It has continually engaged in operations like breeding, hatching, broiling, and any other activity it may entail. India is ranked third in egg production and fifth in broiler meat production, with 75 billion and 4.20 million tons, respectively. India’s poultry industry contributes 5% and 2.5 % of the total global output in meat and eggs. Indian poultry market reached a value of 28.18 billion USD in 2022 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.1% from 2023-2028 to reach a value of 44.97 billion USD by 2028.
CPCB Guidelines for Poultry Farms Management have provided extensive detail on the proper management of Poultry farms to ensure a sustainable environment. Along with the management guidelines, the government have also put in place various initiatives to encourage business owners and provide a better marketplace. Therefore, an entrepreneur should take advantage of government incentives to enter into this highly rewarding business. This will require fulfilling all legal obligations in starting a farm that could be done swiftly and hassle-free with the assistance of licencing and compliance experts.
Read our Article:CPCB Guidelines For Financial Support For Establishing Pelletisation And Torrefaction Plants